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Carbon disulfide

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This article is about the chemical substance CS2. For the software suite by Adobe Systems, see Adobe Creative Suite. For the cycle super-highway in London, see List of cycle routes in London.

  

  

Names

  

IUPAC name

Methanedithione

  

Other names

Carbon bisulfide

  

Identifiers

  

CAS Number

75-15-0 

ChEBI

CHEBI:23012 

ChemSpider

6108 

EC Number

200-843-6

Jmol 3D model

Interactive image

KEGG

C19033 

PubChem

6348

RTECS number

FF6650000

UNII

S54S8B99E8 

UN number

1131

InChI[show]

  

SMILES[show]

  

Properties

  

Chemical formula

CS2

Molar mass

76.13 g·mol1

Appearance

Colorless liquid

Impure: light-yellow

Odor

Chloroform (pure)

Foul (commercial)

Density

1.539 g/cm3 (-186°C)

1.2927 g/cm3 (0 °C)

1.266 g/cm3 (25 °C)[1]

Melting point

111.61 °C (168.90 °F; 161.54 K)

Boiling point

46.24 °C (115.23 °F; 319.39 K)

Solubility in water

0.258 g/100 mL (0 °C)

0.239 g/100 mL (10 °C)

0.217 g/100 mL (20 °C)[2]

0.014 g/100 mL (50 °C)[1]

Solubility

Soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, oil, CHCl3, CCl4

Solubility in formic acid

4.66 g/100 g[1]

Solubility in dimethyl sulfoxide

45 g/100 g (20.3 °C)[1]

Vapor pressure

48.1 kPa (25 °C)

82.4 kPa (40 °C)[3]

Refractive index (nD)

1.627[4]

Viscosity

0.436 cP (0 °C)

0.363 cP (20 °C)

Structure

  

Molecular shape

Linear

Dipole moment

0 D (20 °C)[1]

Thermochemistry

  

Specific

heat capacity (C)

75.73 J/mol·K[1]

Std molar

entropy (So298)

151 J/mol·K[1]

Std enthalpy of

formationfHo298)

88.7 kJ/mol[1]

Gibbs free energyfG˚)

64.4 kJ/mol[1]

Std enthalpy of

combustioncHo298)

1687.2 kJ/mol[3]

Hazards

  

Safety data sheet

See: data page

GHS pictograms

   

   

[4]

GHS signal word

Danger

GHS hazard statements

H225, H315, H319, H361, H372[4]

GHS precautionary statements

P210, P281, P305+351+338, P314[4]

ICSC 0022

EU classification (DSD)

F

T

Xi

R-phrases

R11, R36/38, R48/23, R62, R63

S-phrases

(S1/2), S16, S33, S36/37, S45

Inhalation hazard

Irritant

Eye hazard

Irritant

Skin hazard

Irritant

NFPA 704

4

3

0

Flash point

43 °C (45 °F; 230 K)[1]

Autoignition

temperature

102 °C (216 °F; 375 K)[1]

Explosive limits

1.3%-50%[5]

Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):

  

LD50 (median dose)

3188 mg/kg (rat, oral)

LC50 (median concentration)

>1670 ppm (rat, 1 hr)

15500 ppm (rat, 1 hr)

3000 ppm (rat, 4 hr)

3500 ppm (rat, 4 hr)

7911 ppm (rat, 2 hr)

3165 ppm (mouse, 2 hr)[6]

LCLo (lowest published)

4000 ppm (human, 30 min)[6]

US health exposure limits (NIOSH):

  

PEL (Permissible)

TWA 20 ppm C 30 ppm 100 ppm (30-minute maximum peak)[5]

REL (Recommended)

TWA 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) ST 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) [skin][5]

IDLH (Immediate danger)

500 ppm[5]

Related compounds

  

Related compounds

Carbon dioxide

Carbonyl sulfide

Carbon diselenide

Supplementary data page

  

Structure and

properties

Refractive index (n),

Dielectric constantr), etc.

Thermodynamic

data

Phase behaviour

solid–liquid–gas

Spectral data

UV, IR, NMR, MS

 verify (what is 

   

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Infobox references

  

Carbon disulfide

Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2. The compound is used frequently as a building block in organic chemistry as well as an industrial and chemical non-polar solvent. It has an "ether-like" odor, but commercial samples are typically contaminated with foul-smelling impurities.[7]

Contents

 [hide

Occurrence and manufacture[edit]

Small amounts of carbon disulfide are released by volcanic eruptions and marshes. CS2 once was manufactured by combining carbon (or coke) and sulfur at high temperatures. A lower-temperature reaction, requiring only 600 °C, utilizes natural gas as the carbon source in the presence of silica gel or alumina catalysts:[7]

2 CH4 + S8 2 CS2 + 4 H2S

The reaction is analogous to the combustion of methane. It is isoelectronic with carbon dioxide. CS2 is highly flammable:

CS2 + 3 O2 CO2 + 2 SO2

Global production/consumption of carbon disulfide is approximately one million tonnes, with China consuming 49%, followed by India at 13%, mostly for the production of rayon fiber.[8] United States production in 2007 was 56,000 tonnes.[9]

Reactions[edit]

Compared to CO2, CS2 is more reactive toward nucleophiles and more easily reduced. These differences in reactivity can be attributed to the weaker π donor-ability of the sulfido centers, which renders the carbon more electrophilic. It is widely used in the synthesis of organosulfur compounds such as metam sodium, a soil fumigant and is commonly used in the production of the soft fabric viscose.

Addition of nucleophiles[edit]

Nucleophiles such as amines afford dithiocarbamates:

2 R2NH + CS2 [R2NH2+][R2NCS2]

Xanthates form similarly from alkoxides:

RONa + CS2 [Na+][ROCS2]

This reaction is the basis of the manufacture of regenerated cellulose, the main ingredient of viscose, rayon and cellophane. Both xanthates and the related thioxanthates (derived from treatment of CS2 with sodium thiolates) are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.

Sodium sulfide affords trithiocarbonate:

Na2S + CS2 [Na+]2[CS32]

Chlorination[edit]

Chlorination of CS2 is the principal route to carbon tetrachloride:[7]

CS2 + 3 Cl2 CCl4 + S2Cl2

This conversion proceeds via the intermediacy of thiophosgene, CSCl2.

Coordination chemistry[edit]

CS2 is a ligand for many metal complexes, forming pi complexes. One example is CpCo(η2-CS2)(PMe3).[10]

Carbon disulfide hydrolase[edit]

Carbon disulfide is naturally formed in the mudpots of volcanic solfataras. It serves as a source of hydrogen sulfide, which is an electron donor for certain organisms that oxidize it into sulphuric acid or related sulfur oxides. The hyperthermophilic Acidianus strain was found to convert CS2 into H2S and CO2. The enzyme responsible for this conversion is termed carbon disulfide hydrolase.[11]

The enzyme can be obtained in both apoenzyme and holoenzyme forms. The enzyme is predicted to have an isoelectric point of 5.92 and a molecular mass of 23,576 Da. The enzyme is hexadecameric.[11]

The apoenzyme form, lacking the zinc cofactor, has a molecular weight of 382815.4 g/mol. The chloride ion and the 3,6,9,12,15,18,21,24,27,30,33,36,39-tridecaoxahentetracontane-1,41-diol (C28H58O15) are the two main ligands seen on the enzyme in this form. There are 16 polymer chains seen in this form contributing to the heaviness of the enzyme. This form is also sometimes termed the selenomethionine form.[12]

CS2 hydrolase in its holoenzyme has a cofactor bound to it. In this form the only ligand to be found is the zinc ion and the molecular weight of the enzyme overall is 189404.8 g/mol. There are only eight polymer chains seen in this form and this may be due to the fact that the enzyme catalyzes the conversion of CS2 in this form.[12]

The enzyme is similar to that of carbonic anhydrases. The enzyme monomer of CS2 hydrolase displays a typical β-carbonic anhydrase fold and active site. Two of these monomers form a closely intertwined dimer with a central β-sheet capped by anα-helical domain. Four dimers form a square octameric ring through interactions of the long arms at the N and C termini. Similar ring structures have been seen in strains of carbonic anhydrases, however, in CS2 hydrolase, two octameric rings form a hexadecamer by interlocking at right angles to each other. This results in the blocking of the entrance to the active site and the formation of a single 15-Å-long, highly hydrophobic tunnel that functions as a specificity filter. This provides a key difference between carbonic anhydrase and CS2 hydrolase. This tunnel determines the enzyme's substrate specificity for CS2, which is hydrophobic as well.

Mechanism[edit]

The mechanism by which this hydrolase converts CS2 into H2S is similar to that of how carbonic anhydrase hydrates CO2 to HCO3.[citation needed] This similarity points to a likely mechanism. The zinc at the active site is tetrahedral, being coordinated by Cys 35, His 88, Cys 91 and water.[citation needed] The water is deprotonated to give a zinc hydroxide that adds the substrate to give a Zn-O-C(S)SH intermediate.[citation needed] A similar process is proposed[by whom?] to convert COS into CO2.[citation needed]

CS2 + H2O COS + H2S

COS + H2O CO2 + H2S

Polymerization[edit]

CS2 polymerizes upon photolysis or under high pressure to give an insoluble material called "Bridgman's black", named after the discoverer of the polymer, P. W. Bridgman. Trithiocarbonate (-S-C(S)-S-) linkages comprise, in part, the backbone of the polymer, which is a semiconductor.[13]

Uses[edit]

Fumigation[edit]

It can be used in fumigation of airtight storage warehouses, airtight flat storages, bins, grain elevators, railroad box cars, shipholds, barges and cereal mills.[14]

Insecticide[edit]

Carbon disulfide is used as an insecticide for the fumigation of grains, nursery stock, in fresh fruit conservation and as a soil disinfectant against insects and nematodes.[15]

Solvent[edit]

Carbon disulfide is a solvent for phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, bromine, iodine, fats, resins, rubber, and asphalt.[16] It has been used in the purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes.[17]

Manufacturing[edit]

The principal industrial uses of carbon disulfide are the manufacture of viscose rayon, cellophane film, carbon tetrachloride and xanthogenates and electronic vacuum tubes.

Working Fluid[edit]

Various attempts were made in the 19th century to use carbon disulfide as the working fluid in steam engines and locomotive applications, due to its low boiling point; it would be either directly heated by the fuel, or would be used to recover waste heat from the combustion gases of other fuels and the condensing of steam in a traditional boiler. These experiments were never successful, both due to the low temperatures involved and the extreme risk of both poisoning and explosion.[18]

Spectroscope prisms[edit]

Due to its high optical dispersion it was used in some spectroscopes.[19]

Health effects[edit]

At high levels, carbon disulfide may be life-threatening because it affects the nervous system. Significant safety data comes from the viscose rayon industry, where both carbon disulfide as well as small amounts of H2S may be present.

Carbon disulfide has been linked to toxin-induced parkinsonism. [20]

See also[edit]

   

출처: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_disulfide>

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